This week’s BS&M blog takes on two new pieces of anthro news – neither of which we’ve actually had a journal club meeting about!
The first bit of news has been making waves all over the internet (as news tends to do, I guess): a third species of orangutan has been named! The newly designated Pongo tapanuliensis, or the Tapanuli orangutan, comes from the southernmost extent of the previously known Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) range. P. tapanuliensis was named on the basis of morphological and genetic comparisons, which suggested that its skeleton looks subtly different from that of all other living orangutans (for example, in having relative broad upper canines and a relatively shallow face) and that it’s the oldest orangutan lineage (having split from the line leading to the other two species around 3.38 million years ago). Pretty cool!
While the naming of a “new” mammal species (especially one as large as an orangutan) is always exciting, there are a few potential issues to consider. First, P. tapanuliensis was named on the basis of a single (male) specimen and two genomes. It’s possible that there are other Tapanuli orangutan skeletons in museum collections that were not previously recognized as different from the northern Sumatran populations; this would be a something to look into, in the interest of increasing sample size. I’m also curious about what the skeleton of a female Tapanuli orangutan might look like. Second, Nater et al. estimate that there are already fewer than 800 Tapanuli individuals left. This (and splitting the Sumatran orangutans into two species) has implications for conservation. Is it worth it to prioritize saving the more endangered Tapanuli orangutan, which may already lack a population of viable size, or is it better to concentrate efforts on the Sumatran orangutan? A more optimistic view might be that this new species will attract attention (and money, which is ultimately what allows conservation efforts to happen) to the plight of orangutans generally. It’s impossible to know. Either way, the “discovery” of the Tapanuli orangutan expands our understanding of the diversity of our closest relatives – again, pretty cool!
The second bit of anthro news is also about expanding our understanding of diversity, but this time of our own genome.